NAFTA is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico and the United States that creates a trilateral trade bloc in North America. Most calendars consist of both sectoral and horizontal sections. The horizontal section contains entries that apply to all sectors that are then shown in the calendar. Horizontal restrictions often refer to a certain type of supply, particularly the commercial presence and presence of individuals. The “sector sections” contain entries that apply only to the relevant service. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a multilateral agreement regulating international trade. According to its preamble, its objective is to “substantially reduce tariffs and other trade barriers and eliminate preferences on a mutually beneficial basis.” The GATT was negotiated at the UN Conference on Trade and Employment and was the result of the failure of negotiations on the creation of the International Trade Organization (ITO). The GATT was signed in 1947 and lasted until 1993, when it was replaced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995. The original GATT text (GATT 1947) is still in force under the WTO, subject to amendments to the GATT in 1994. Another common situation requires a derogation from the GATT/WTO rules.
Many countries have decided to embark on several paths of trade liberalization. The multilateral approach describes the GATT process, in which many countries reduce their trade barriers at the same time, but not to zero. The alternative approach is called regionalism, in which two or more countries agree to reduce their tariffs and other obstacles to zero- but only between them. This is a regional approach, as most independent trading partners are close to or, at the very least, important trading partners (although this is not always the case). Some countries, particularly developing countries, maintain fairly high tariffs, but have decided to reduce real tariffs to below the set rate. This tariff is referred to as the applied tariff. A unilateral reduction in tariffs is permitted under the GATT, as is an increase in the rate applied to the linked rate. For more explanation, please refer to Chapter 1 “Trade Introductory Questions: History, Institutions and Legal Framework,” Section 1.9″Annex B: Tariffs Related to Tariffs Applied.” The agreement opened the door to open trade by ending tariffs on various goods and services and implementing equality between Canada, America and Mexico. NAFTA has allowed tariff exemption for agricultural products such as eggs, maize and meat.
This has allowed companies to act freely and import and export different products at the North American level. A free trade agreement is contrary to the principle of the most favoured nation of the GATT and the WTO, since the MFN requires countries to offer them their most liberal trade policy to all GATT and WTO members. If a free trade agreement is born, the most liberal policy becomes a zero tariff or free trade. However, the original GATT was an exception to this rule in the introduction of section 24. Article 24 allows countries to mate and create free trade zones as long as the free trade agreement brings countries significantly closer to free trade and as long as countries notify the GATT/WTO of any new agreements.