Collective agreements may be implicit or explicitly incorporated into individual employment contracts. Those that are expressly included are usually made by reference to the collective agreement in the employment contract. The Court found that the agency shop clause is valid when the fees are used by the union for “collective bargaining, contract management and complaint adjustment.” The Court also clarified that freedom of association means that an individual has the right to develop his own beliefs rather than let him be thwarted by the state. For example, unions are prohibited from using non-member money to revive an ideological cause that has nothing to do with the union`s duties as an agent. Collective bargaining refers to the process of bargaining between an employer and a union of workers in order to create an agreement regulating the terms of employment of workers. A collective agreement is a written contract between an employer and a union representing workers. The KBA is the result of a broad negotiation process between the parties on issues such as wages, hours and terms of employment. Arbitration is a method of dispute resolution that is used as an alternative to litigation. Collective agreements between employers and workers generally refer to it as a means of resolving disputes.
The parties choose a neutral third party (an arbitrator) to hold a formal or informal hearing on disagreements. The arbitrator then makes a binding decision for the parties. Federal and national law regulate the practice of arbitration. While the federal arbitration law does not apply to employment contracts, federal courts are increasingly applying the law in labour disputes. 18 states have passed the Uniform Arbitration Act (2000) as a state law. Thus, the arbitration agreement and the arbitrator`s decision may be enforceable under national and federal law. The agreement is accepted by tacit means arising from habit and practice in the sector. More information about collective bargaining can be found in this article on the Florida Police Review, this article on the Nova Southeastern University Law Review, and this article about the Boston College Law Review.